Harvard Referencing In Text Cited In Essay

There are two components to referencing: in-text citations in your paper and the reference list at the end of your paper.

The in-text citation:

Harvard is an 'author/date' style, so your in-text citation consists of author(s), year of publication and page. If your in text citation is a general one, to ideas that run through a complete work, then the in text citation would simply use author and date as below  


In-text citation of a book 

When you quote directly from an author or citing a specific idea or piece of information from a specific page or pages then you need to include the page number of the quote in your in-text citation.



Click for detailed guideline for In-text referencing

  The reference list/bibliography:

All in-text citations should be listed in the reference list at the end of your document.

 Reference list entry for a book

Reference list entry for a Journal


Reference list/Bibliography entries contain all the information that someone needs to follow up your source. Reference lists/Bibliographies in Harvard are arranged alphabetically by author.

Insert an in-text citation:
  • when your work has been influenced by someone else's work, for example:
    • when you directly quote someone else's work
    • when you paraphrase someone else's work
  • The in-text citation consists of:
    • author surname(s)* (in the order that they appear on the actual publication), followed by the year of publication of the source that you are citing. (*Surname = Family name)
    • include page or paragraph numbers for direct quotes eg.  (Weston, 1988, p. 45). Page numbers are not
      normally included when paraphrasing but may be included if desired.
  • The in-text citation is placed immediately after the information being cited.
  • If quoting or citing a source which has been cited within another document, mention the original source
    together with the secondary reference details, for example:  (Smith, 2008, as cited in Jones, 2010). Only the
    secondary reference (i.e. Jones, 2010) should be included in the reference list.
  • In-text citations are usually included in the word count of your document.
  • If your citation is at the end of a sentence, ensure the full stop is placed after the reference.
  • For citations in brackets with two authors the ‘&’ symbol can be used. If the author citation forms part of
    your sentence the word ‘and’ must be used,  e.g. (Brown & Black, 2010) OR “Brown and Black (2010) indicate that…”


Placement of citations can be important depending on the emphasis you wish to apply. 

If you wish to quote or paraphrase an author and want to emphasise the author,  then your citation becomes 'author prominent'. The citation will look something like this:

  • Jones (2012) has concluded that...

If you wish to emphasise the information you have paraphrased or quoted from an author, then your citation becomes 'information prominent'.  The citation will look something like this:

  • ... as evidenced from a recent Australian study (Jones, 2012).

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