You may cite a single author’s name in the text.
Briton admonished supporters of capital punishment (47-53).
Or, you can use a parenthetical reference with the author’s name and page number.
Supporters of capital punishment specialize in the abolition of truth (Briton 47-53).
Two or three authors
Use ‘and’ (not ‘&’) between the last two author names.
(Smith and Houston 43).
Give the last name of each author separated by commas, as in
(Romano, Dokoupil, and Olander vii).
Or, include the authors’ names in the text and reference only the page number in the parenthetical citation, as in
Romano, Dokoupil, and Olander presented their position . . . (vii).
Four or more authors
If the work has more than three authors, follow the form in the works cited reference. Give all of the authors’ last names in the text or list the first author’s name followed by et al.
According to James, Cameron, Smith, Hawthorne, and Cushing, social customs in the southern United States . . . . (157-165).
James et al. claim that social customs prevalent in the southern United States have . . . 157-165).
Social customs in the southern United States have become . . . (James et al. 157-165).
Multiple works by the same author
In the parenthetical citation, put a comma after the author’s name, then a shortened version of the title and the page reference.
Brown, Robert. Poetry at Rest. Anytown: Pub P, 2001. Print.
---.. Poetry in Motion. Anytown: Pub P, 2001. Print.
The fluidity of poetry can be compared to the . . . (Brown, Poetry in Motion 47).
Brown compares the fluidity of poetry to the movement . . . (Poetry in Motion 47).
Multiple works by different authors in one citation
Authors with same surname
If the works cited list contains two or more authors with the same surname, include the author’s first initials in the parenthetical reference.
(T. Blake and R. Blake)
Organizations as authors
When the author is a corporation or organization, either name the corporate author in the signal phrase or include a shortened version in the parenthetical citation. If the organization name is long, reference the name in the text.
According to a study sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the U.S. workforce is not prepared for more intense global competition for high-skilled jobs (13).
The U.S. workforce is not prepared for the intense global competition that will be required for high-skilled workers in future years (NSF 13).
Use an abbreviated name or acronym only if it well known to your readers.
If your works cited entry indicates more than one volume of a multivolume set, you will need to include both the volume and page of the information you are citing.
Wellek, Rene. A History of Modern Criticism, 1750-1950. 8 vols. New Haven: Yale UP, 1955-92. Print.
(Wellek 2: 1-10)
Wellek proposes that the history . . . (3: 110-13).
In volume 5, Wellek describes . . . (265-71).
If your works cited entry indicates only one volume of a multivolume set, include the page reference in the text of your document.
Olsen, Kristin. All Things Austen: An Encyclopedia of Austen's World. Vol. 1. Westport: Greenwood, 2005. Print.
In-text: Olsen describes the shawl as a "a decorative quasi-classical drapery" (170).
If you are citing an entire volume in the text of the document, a parenthetical citation is not needed as “In volume 3, Smith discusses . . .”
If you are referring to an entire work, you may identify the work in your text using the author or title name from your works cited list, rather than a parenthetical citation.
Voice of the Shuttle. Ed. Alan Liu. Dept. of Eng., U of California, Santa Barbara, n.d. Web. 8 Aug. 2007.
In-text: Voice of the Shuttle has links to many helpful resources.
Kurosawa, Akira, dir. Rashomon. Perf. Toshiro Mifune. Daiei, 1950. Film In-text:
In-text: Kurosawa’s Rashomon was one of the first Japanese films to attract a Western audience.
Why we use parenthetical / in-text citations
Researchers place brief parenthetical descriptions to acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the last name of the author and the specific page numbers of the source. If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation.
Place the parenthetical citation where there is a pause in the sentence – normally before the end of a sentence or a comma. The in-text citation will differ depending on how much information you provide within the sentence.
Example with author’s name in text:
Johnson argues this point (12-13).
This point had already been argued (Johnson 12-13).
Citing sources with more than one author
If you use sources with the same author surnames, then include a first name initial. If the two sources have authors with the same initials, then include their full names:[su_spacer]
(J. Johnson 12-13).
(John Johnson 12-13).
If there are two or three authors of the source, include their last names in the order they appear on the source:
(Smith, Wollensky, and Johnson 45).
If there are more than three authors, you can cite all the authors with their last name, or you can cite the first author followed by “et al.” Follow what is shown the works cited list.
(Smith et al. 45).
Citing sources without an author
Some sources do not have authors or contributors – for instance, when you cite some websites. Instead, refer to the name of the source in your parenthetical citation in place of the author. Shorten / abbreviate the name of the source but ensure that your reader can easily identify it in your works cited (abbreviate the title starting with the same word in which it is alphabetized). Punctuate with quotations or italicize as you would in its works cited form (a book is italicized; an article is in quotes).
Double agents are still widely in use (Spies 12-15, 17).
With prices of energy at new highs, bikes have been increasingly used (“Alternative Transportation” 89).
Citing part of a work
When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, paragraphs or volumes. When the identifier is preceded by an abbreviation or word, place a comma between the identifier and the source reference.
Part of a multivolume work
It is arguably the most innovative period in history (Webster, vol 4).
Chapter within a book (if no specific numbers can be referenced)
The electoral college undermines democracy (Sanders, “Government Injustices”).
Article in a periodical
Allen claims there is an inverse correlation between higher taxes and patriotic feelings worldwide (B2).
When citing a specific page(s) of a multivolume work, precede the page number by the volume number and a colon. Do not separate by a comma.
It was arguably the most innovative period in history (Webster 4:12-15).
Use “par.” or “pars.” when referring to specific paragraphs.
The marketing dollars of big studio films has overshadowed good indie movies (Anderson, pars. 12-34).
Citing group or corporate authors
In your parenthetical citation, cite a corporate author like you would a normal author. Preferably, incorporate the corporate author in your text instead of the parenthetical citation.
Facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (American Medical Association 12-43).
As noted by the American Medical Association, facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (12-43).
Citing an entire source
When citing an entire work, there are no specific page numbers to refer to. Therefore it is preferable to refer to the source within the text itself with either the author or the title of the source.
Hartford suggests the Internet provides more distractions than it does information.
Citing multiple works by the same author
If you reference more than one source by the same author, distinguish the parenthetical citations by including the name of the source. Use a comma to separate the author from the source.
Wars can be economic catalysts (Friedman, World 77-80).
Industrialized nations are better equipped to rebound from recessions (Friedman, “High Tides” 56).
Citing indirect sources
When an original source is unavailable, then cite the secondhand source – for instance, a lecture in a conference proceedings. When quoting or paraphrasing a quote, write “qtd. in” before the author and pages.
John Murray calls Tim Smith “interesting but egotistical” (qtd. in Jesrani 34).
Citing literary / classic and religious works
For works such as novels, plays and other classic works, it’s helpful to provide further identifying information along with the page information. Do this by adding a semicolon and then the identifying information following the page number.
(Tolstoy 5; pt. 2, ch. 3).
When citing classic poems and plays, replace page numbers with division numbers (part, book, scene, act). The below refers to book 10 line 5. Bear in mind the divisions and the way they are written can vary by source.
Fear plays a role in Homer’s Odyssey (10.5).
The title of books in the Bible and other famous literary works should be abbreviated.
(New Jerusalem Bible, Gen. 2.6-9).
Placing parenthetical citations in direct quotations
When directly quoting a source, place the parenthetical citation after the quote.
Sanders explains that economic woes are due to “the mortgage crisis and poor risk assessment” (20).
Place the parenthetical citation at the end of an indented quotation. There should be no period after the parenthetical citation. The last sentence of the indented quote should look like:
It’s unclear whether multilateral tariffs are disruptive to bilateral talks. (Evert 30-31)
Citing online sources
Generally, follow the same principals of parenthetical citations to cite online sources. Refer to the author, and if possible, a permanent identifier that would be the same for any reader.
The economy will rebound with the new monetary policies (Smith).
Solar power will become the primary source of energy (Williams 2).
Citing online sources with no author
If there is no author, use the title that begins the citation, either the article or website title. Be sure it also takes the same formatting, i.e. articles are in quotes and website titles are italicized. Shorten / abbreviate the name of the source but ensure that your reader can easily identify it in your works cited (abbreviate the title starting with the same word in which it is alphabetized).
Elephants are thought to be one of the smartest mammals (“Smart Elephants”).
Nineteen men and women were convicted (Salem Witchcraft Trials).
Note: Ideally, when citing online sources, try to reference the source within your sentence, with either the author or the title to avoid writing a parenthetical citation.
Where to put the parenthetical citations:
- Place parenthetical citations at the end of the sentence you are paraphrasing and quoting. For example: The destruction of the argentine is due to many socioeconomic factors (Taylor 33).
- Even when quoting, place the parenthetical citations after the quotations.
“Mamma always said stupid is as stupid does” (Gump 89).
When quoting four lines or more, indent every line you are quoting by one inch (or 10 spaces) and do not use quotes.
The use of nuclear weapons in today’s society is strikingly alarming. Though the United States is the only country to employ it in the past, they are at the same time the country that condemns its use the most. While this may seem hypocritical, is it the most proper action for the United States to make as the global leader. (Taparia 9)